The beginning of trade-commerce in Indian history is believed to be from the Harappan period. Many merchants and travelers arrived here in the medieval period, influenced by India’s ancient cultural heritage, economic wealth, spiritual achievements, philosophy, art, etc. But European companies entering India in the late 15th and early 17th centuries with the initial objectives of trade in India affected the political, economic, and social destiny of the region for about 350 years.
The Portuguese were the first among these foreign powers. Dutch English and Danish came after them. Despite the Dutch coming to India before the British, the British East India Company was founded before the Dutch East India Company.
The Portuguese company entered India first among the European powers. The new sea route to India was discovered by Portuguese merchant Vasco da Gama on 17 May 1948 reaching Calicut, a port on the west coast of India. Vasco da Gama was welcomed by the then Sashak Jamorin of Calicut (it was the title of Sashak of Calicut). The Arab traders who held the then Indian trade did not like this behavior of the Zamorin, so they were opposed to the Portuguese.
Thus we see that the arrival of the Portuguese to India marked the beginning of a new era in the field of trade between India and Europe. Vasco da Gama made nearly 60 times more money in return for travel to and from India. After this, the Portuguese slowly started coming to India. The Portuguese established their trading calls in the ports of Calicut, Daman, Diu, and Hooghly in India.
The second Portuguese establishment campaign in India was launched in 1500 AD under the leadership of Pedro रेजlvarez Cabral. Cabral gifted the Zamorin by holding an Arabic ship at Calicut harbor. Vasco da Gama returned to India in 1502 AD. The first Portuguese factory in India was established in Cochin in 1503 AD and the second factory was established in Kannur in 1505 AD. It is considered the de facto founder of Portuguese power in India.
Dutch arrival in India
The Dutch came to India after the Portuguese. They were residents of the Netherlands or the Netherlands. The Dutch were determined to enter the spice markets of Southeast Asia and establish control. Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch citizen to visit India in 1596 AD. The Dutch established a large trading company ‘United East India Company of the Netherlands’ in 1602 AD. It was formed by combining various trading companies. Its original name was ‘Verigande Ostindische Company’.
In addition, other important factories by the Dutch were located at Pulicat (1610), Surat (1616), Chinsura, Vimalipatnam, Qasim Bazar, Patna, Balasore, Nagapattinam, and Cochin.
|Estado the India (Portuguese company)||1948|
|Veriginde Ost Edische Company (Dutch East India Company)||1602|
|British East India Company||1600 (1599)|
|Dane East India Company||1616|
|Companne des Indesh Orientlesh (French Company)||1664|
European trading company
|Vasco da Gama||First European traveler to India|
|Pedro lvarez Cabral||Second Portuguese coming to India|
|Francisco de Almera||First Portuguese Governor of India|
|John mildenhall||First British citizen to visit India|
|Captain Hawkins||The first British messenger who met Emperor Jahangir|
|Gerald Aungiar||Founder of Bombay|
|Job charnock||Founder of Calcutta|
|Charles Eyre||First Administrator of Fort William (Calcutta)|
|William Narish||The messenger of the new British company ‘Trading in the East’, founded in 1638 AD.|
He was present in the court of Aurangzeb
|François Martin||First French Governor of Pondicherry|
|Francis Day||Founder of madras|
|Shobha Singh||Bardhaman Zamindar, who revolted against the British in 1690|
|Ibrahim Khan||Landowners of Kalikata, Govindpur and Sutanati|
|John surman||The head of the shivmandal, which received special trading facility from|
the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar
|Father Monserrat||President of the first delegation to reach Akbar’s court|
|Caron Frank||It established the first French factory in India in Surat|
The arrival of the French in India
The French entered India later than most other European companies. In India, Portuguese Dutch Englishmen and Danes had established their commercial cells before them. In 1664 AD, the French trading company ‘Company the Ind Oriental’ (Company des Indes Oriental) was established by the efforts of his minister Colbert at the time of Emperor Louis 14th of France.
This company was formed by the government of France. And all its expenses were also borne by the government. It was also called a government trading company because the company was protected by the government and the government depended on financial aid.
The first establishment of the French in Surat in 1668 AD was founded by Frank Caro. The second trading Kothi was founded by the French at Masulipatnam in 1669 AD after obtaining the right of occupation from the Sultan of Golconda princely state. The foundation of ‘Pondicherry’ was laid by Fredois Martin in 1673 AD. Shaista Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, rented out a place to the French where the famous Kothi of Chandranagar was established.
The Dutch seized Pondicherry from French control in 1639 AD but returned it according to the Rivic Agreement of 1697 AD. Mauritius was taken over by the French in 1721 AD, Mahe (Malabar coast) in 1725 AD, and Karaikal in 1939 AD. After 1742 AD, along with earning business profits, the political ambitions of the French were also awakened. As a result, war broke out between the British and the French. These wars are known as the ‘Karnataka War’.
Important Dates: At a Glance
|1498||Arrival of Vasco da Gama to India.|
|1500||Second Portuguese traveler Cabral arrives in India.|
|1502||Viscodigama’s second visit to India.|
|1510||Portuguese authority over Goa.|
|1530||Goa became the Portuguese capital instead of Cochin.|
|1599||Establishment of British East India Company.|
|1602||Establishment of Dutch East India Company.|
|1661||The Portuguese gave the king of Britain at Bombay Dowry.|
|1664||Establishment of French East India Company.|
|1690||Establishment of Calcutta by Job Charnauk.|
|1708-09||Two UK rival companies merge.|
|1759||The decisive battle of Bedra in which the British defeated the|
Dutch and went out of Indian trade.
|1760||The decisive war of Vadivash in which the British defeated the|
French and drove them out of Indian trade.