British Conquest in India Part 2

Battle of Buxar

The battle of Buxar was a great success for the British from the military point of view as the victory of the Battle of Plassey was the result of the betrayal of the generals of Siraj-daula. But in the battle of Buxar, the British were victorious without any deceit. Besides, the Nawab of Awadh was not as naive and foolish as Shuja-ud-daula. He was well versed in politics as well as in war. The prestige of the company was enhanced by defeating such qualified governance. After this victory, the dominion of English power was established in Bengal.

In 1765, Clive came to Calcutta for the second time as Governor of Bengal. After the end of this war, Clive entered into a treaty with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam Driyat and the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Daulah, the first and Dridi of Allahabad respectively.

First Alliance of Allahabad (August 12, 1765 AD)

The treaty was concluded between Clive, the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and Nawab Najmuddaula of Bengal. The terms of this treaty were as follows.
The company received Diwali of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam.
The company took the district of Kada and Allahabad from the Nawab of Awadh and gave it to the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam Driti.
The company accepted an annual pension of 26 lakh rupees to the Mughal emperor.
Second Alliance of Allahabad (16 August 1765 AD)

The treaty was concluded between Clive and Shuja-ud-Daula. The terms of this treaty were as follows
The remaining area of ​​Awadh, except Allahabad and Kada, was returned to Najmuddaula.
An English army was stationed at Awadh by the company at the expense of the Nawab for the protection of Awadh.
The company is getting the facility to do tax-free business in Awadh
Shuja-ud-daulah was given the right to collect the rent as before from King Balwant Singh of Benares. Raja Balwant Singh assisted the British in the war.

Dyarchy in Bengal (1765-1772 AD)

The first treaty of Allahabad, completed in 1765, was an epochal event in the history of Bengal as it later laid the background for the administrative changes that laid the foundation of the British administrative system. The Nawab’s power came to an end and a system was born which was free from the responsibility of governance.

In the Mughal period, there were two officials at the level of the provincial administration, who were called Diwan and Subedar or Governor. The Diwan was in charge of the provincial revenue or finance system, while the Subedar or Governor executed the functions of the Nizamat (military, defense, police, and administration of justice). These two officers controlled each other and the Mughals were responsible to the central administration.

The company as Sovereign Ruler of Bengal

In 1772, when Warren Hesitzs was appointed Governor of Bengal, the political system established by Clive had completely failed. The Hastings, therefore, began to rule Bengal as a conquered state and the Chadam took off the mask of Mughal sovereignty. The amount (subsistence) paid to the Nawab was now reduced from 32 lakh to 16 lakh.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam was seized of Kada and Allahabad from the Tribe and sold to the Nawab of Awadh and his pension (Rs 26 lakh) was discontinued. Thus the company established its control over the administrative and political rights of Bengal in less than two decades.

Anglo-Mysore Relations

There were many reasons for the British intervention in the case of Mysore, the most important of which was commercial. The Mysore state was a geographical location and the Mysore state had complete control over the beneficial trade along the coast. The British wanted a monopoly on the trade of black pepper and cardamom on the one hand, on the other hand, they also threatened the sovereignty of Madras from Mysore.

The financial situation there had deteriorated due to invasions of control over Mysore by the Marathas. The failure of Devaraj and Nandraj, the financial control of the Mysore state, contributed to the rise of Hyder Ali. By 1761, Hyder Ali established his independent kingdom in Mysore. While the Marathas, the Nizams, and the Nawabs of Karnataka were engaged in continuous border expansion to establish their supremacy and consolidate their position, on the other hand, the emergence of an independent state in the neighborhood under Hyder Ali’s leadership. Had become a thorn.

Such circumstances gave the East India Company a golden opportunity to intervene. Mysore was a wealthy province in terms of revenue and had relations with the French, so the Mysore-French relationship in itself was a major threat to the British. The East India Company followed a policy of direct intervention to protect its business interests. As a result, four important wars were fought between the company and Mysore.

First Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84 AD) (First Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)
After the conquest of Bengal, the company’s confidence was greatly increased. Now he focused his attention on South India. In 1766 AD, a treaty was signed with the Nizam of Hyderabad against Hyder Ali by the British. The Nizam agreed to help the British against Haider.

Tipu Sultan (1750–1799 AD)

Tipu Sultan was the ruler of 18th century Mysore. It ascended the throne in 1782 AD after Hyder Ali’s death. At this time the struggle between the British and Mysore was going on. In 1784, the Treaty of Mangalore was signed on both sides. He tried to get help against the British by sending his messengers to Turkey and France but failed. Between 1785 and 1787 AD, he fought with the Marathas and he took control of some Maratha territories.

The Carnavalis attacked Tipu in 1790 AD, accusing him of colluding with the French and annexed the Nizams and Marathas as well. Initially, the British failed, but eventually, they were successful in forcing Tipu to the treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1792 AD. According to this treaty, he had to hand over 3 crore rupees and a large part of his empire to the British. After this, in 1799, Wellejali attacked Tipu again, accusing him of a nexus with the French. Tipu was killed fighting bravely on May 4, 1799, and the British became the authority of the Kingdom of Mysore.

Tipu was a heroic general, but he did not prove to be a clever politician like his father. He was a member of the Jacobin Club and planted a ‘tree of freedom’ in his capital Srirangapatnam. He adopted a new currency and new method of weighing, started the modern calendar, and donated it to the monastery of Srangeri. Tipu Sultan also established a trading company of his own.

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84 AD) (Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)
In 1771, when the Marathas attacked Hyder Ali, the British did not help him in violation of the Treaty of Madras. The British were not loyal to the Treaty of Madras. As a result, the war clouds again loomed between the two. British Governor General Varenne Hesitzung became concerned with the war in America and the French joining hands with the French because Hyder Ali had good relations with the French.

Governor General of Bengal during Anglo-Mysore War

WarTimeGovernor General
First Anglo-Mysore War1767-69 ADLord Verelst
Second Anglo-Mysore War1780-84 ADLord Warren Hesitzungs
Third Anglo-Mysore War1790-92 ADLord cornwallis
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War1799 ADLord Wellesley

Anglo-Mysore Relations

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767 – 69 AD) – First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)
reason :
(A) British ambitions
(B) Enmity between Nawab Muhammad Ali and Hyder Ali of Karnataka
(C) Hyder Ali’s control over Malabar’s hero feudatories
(D) Hyder Ali’s proposal not to befriend the British.

Result: Treaty of Madras, 1769 AD – Hyder Ali and East India Company both sides returned each other’s conquered territories and prisoners of war. The two sides pledged to help each other in the event of an attack by any external force.

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780 – 84) – Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)
reason :

(A) Non-compliance of the terms of the treaty by the British
(B) British authority over Mahe
(C) Creation of threesome by Hyder Ali
(D) Associated with the French Franciscans.

Result: Treaty of Mangalore, 1784 AD – Tipu and English. Tipu had to accept the British trading authority in the Mysore state. The British assured that they would keep friendship with Mysore and help them in times of crisis.

Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790 – 92 AD) – Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92)
reason :

(A) The instability of the Treaty of Mangalore
(B) Tipu’s contact with the French
(C) The inclusion of Tipu in the list of friends by Cornwallis in the letter sent by the Marathas.

Result: Treaty of Srirangapatnam, 1792 AD – Tipu and the British. According to this treaty, the British ie Cornwallis were given half their kingdom and three crore rupees as fine by Tipu Sultan.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799 AD) – Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)
reason :

(A) Tipu’s contact with the French
(B) The danger of Napoleon’s invasion of India
(C) Wellesley’s aggressive policy

Result :
(A) Tipu’s state division
(B) English dominion over South India and increase in reputation of Wellesley, Tipu’s death.

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