In the context of the British conquest of India, two opinions are mainly presented by different scholars. According to the first opinion, this victory was aimlessly accidental and unintended. The main argument of the proponents of this view is that the East India Company was a trading company, which was far from political ambitions. Its main purpose was to trade. But coincidentally, the political conditions here inspired him for the Indian political struggle. As a result, they were forced to fight the Indian states and merge with them. They had to fight the regional powers here to fulfill their business ambitions and protect their personal interests.
As a result, he established the Indian Empire. According to another view, India was acquired by the British under a definite and well-planned plan. In support of this view, it is argued that the British organized a business company according to a certain plan and then entered India. He gradually increased his political rights by using his diplomatic tactics and acquired Indian states through his aggressive policies. Thus, using all the policies like Sama, Daam, Dand, Bhed, he acquired the Indian Empire.
Takeover of Bengal
The acquisition of Bengal by the British is prominent in the historical events of the late 18th century in India. In a short period of only eight years, ie from 1757 to 1765 AD, the Nawabs of Bengal Siraj-ud-daulah, Mirzafar, and Mir Qasim proved unsuccessful in maintaining their sovereignty. As a result, the East India Company sovereignty was established in Bengal.
Blackhole incident (June 20, 1756 AD)
This was an English officer J.J. Z. This is a story made by Halwell possibly to gain concoction and fame and to promote anti-violence against the British. In this, Halwell said that on the night of 20 June, 146 British prisoners were locked in a cell 18 feet long and 14 feet 10 inches wide. The next day only 23 people, including Hallwell, survived. This phenomenon is known in history as ‘Black Hole’. This incident seems to be false because it is not possible to close so many people in such a small cell. The second contemporary Muslim historian Ghulam Hussain made no mention of it in his book Siyarul Mutkhairin.
Battle of Plassey
The Battle of Plassey was not open war, but it was a betrayal as its results had already been decided in the present era like cricket match-fixing. Bakshi, Mir Jafar, and Rayadullabh had already met the British. He was also supported by some important traders and bankers of Bengal. In this war, only a small army of Nawab joined under Miramdan and Mohanlal, but here too this force was forced by Mir Bakshi by presenting a wrong strategy. If we consider the number of soldiers employed in this war, we find that 500 soldiers were killed on the Nawab’s side, while only 65 soldiers were killed by the British. So, this is not an open struggle by any means.
On analysis, it is known that the ambition of the businessmen, bankers, and some important officers of the Nawab was aroused by the company in its favor. These people also found their future in a better form with the company instead of the Nawab, but the subsequent events proved that they themselves suffered a great betrayal. Thus we see that the Battle of Plassey was not a major war but a betrayal.
Battle of Plassey (June 23, 1757 AD): The Battle of Plassey is counted among the decisive wars of Indian history because it fixed India’s destiny for the next two hundred years. On 13 June 1757, Clive began his military campaign from Chandranagar and soon reached Palsy. Clive’s army consisted of 1100 Europeans, 200 Indian soldiers, and some gunners. On the other hand, there were 50,000 soldiers in the army of the Nawab, who were headed by the seditious Mirzafar. Other conspirators were also included in this army, such as Yarltif Khan and Raidullabh.
On June 23, 1757, a war between Clive and the Nawab’s army began. Mir Zafar gave Siraj-ud-daulah an insidious consultation and the Nawab postponed the war for a day. In the next day’s war, the forces of the three betrayers returned without fighting. In this war, the trusted soldiers of the Nawab, Miramdan, and Mohanlal received heroism. Siraj-ud-daula escaped and took refuge in Murshidabad, where Meeraj’s son Meeran killed him.
Consequences of the Battle of Plassey
The Battle of Plassey made the British position in India very strong. The victory provided immediate military and commercial benefits to the British. Lord Clive made Mirzafar the next Nawab of Bengal. Becoming the Nawab of Mirzafar is known as the first revolution in the history of Bengal. In exchange for obtaining the rank of Nawab, he had to pay a huge amount to the company. With this, he also had to give the right to free trade in Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa. Mirzafar rewarded Lord Clive with a land of 24 Parganas. After this, the East India Company became a bishop in Bengal.
Revolution of 1760
The economic situation of the Nawab was greatly weakened by the increasing demands of Clive and Company during Mirzafar’s time, causing him to face many difficult situations. Mirzafar was not able to meet the company’s demands. As a result, in 1760 AD, the company, along with the Dutch, accused Mirzafar of hatching a conspiracy against the British and ousted him from the post of Nawab. The company made Meerkasim the new Nawab of Bengal.
Takeover of East India Company and Bengal: Major Events
|Treaty of Alinagar||According to this treaty between Clive and Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab|
fortified. Pledged to exchange prisoners, compensate them, return
them to the conquered places and pledged security. The Nawab also
accepted the privilege of the British.
|Dungeon event||On 20 June 1756 AD, 146 British prisoners were locked up in a dark|
cell overnight, killing 123 people.
|Persons involved in conspiracy against Siraj-ud-daula||Krishnachandra, Jagatseth, Amirchand and Mirzafar|
|Battle of Plassey: Reasons||Business and political ambitions of the company|
|Battle of Plassey: importance||The plunder started in Bengal, in which India’s wealthiest region|
was made poor.
|Battle of Buxar: Reasons||In 1762, Meerkasim stopped trading with the Indians|
and killed some Indians and British prisoners in Patna.
|Battle of Buxar: Importance||In this war from the political point of view, the British occupied and|
established the most powerful region of Northern India at that time.
|Diarchy system||In the year 1765-1772 AD, by dividing the Shashan into two parts|
(directly recovering the revenue of Bengal as a Diwan and giving control of the Nawab Subedar to the police and other judicial powers) due to the various powers in the hands of the dual Shahan or the Daish-Shashan. where did it go .
Mir Kasim and Company
Mir Qasim paid a total of Rs 20 lakhs to the company to get the post of Nawab. Zamindari of Verdwan, Midnapore, and Chittagong was also handed over to the company. Mir Qasim worked tirelessly to strengthen his sovereignty and improve his financial position. He was a qualified administrative and skilled officer. He moved his capital from Murshidabad to Munger to keep away from the influence of the company. He consolidated his army on the European model and made a concerted effort to end financial corruption. The bureaucracy was reorganized by Mir Qasim and there were attempts to ban the misuse of signatures.
All these corrective actions resulted in tensions between the Nawab and the company. This forced the company to adopt an aggressive policy. Most important, however, was the interference in the Nawab’s judicial matters by his company. Due to which the sovereignty of the Nawab was questioned. Judicial work was being carried out from place to place by the company’s bosses. In the light of all these circumstances, a revolutionary decision was taken by the Nawab in 1762. The Nawab abolished all taxes on internal trade. As a result, the privileges of the British ended. Now all Indian and foreign businessmen came to the same level, which was a complete rejection of the company.
As a result, in July 1763, the British declared a formal war against Mir Qasim and declared Mir Jafar as the next Nawab of Bengal.